ARTICLES

2021

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OPPORTUNITIES FOR DIET QUALITY IMPROVEMENT: THE POTENTIAL ROLE OF STAPLE GRAIN FOODS

ABSTRACT: Given the high disease burden associated with the low intake of whole grains, modelling studies that estimate the impact of dietary strategies to increase more healthful grain foods consumption are essential to inform evidence-based and culturally specific policies. The current study investigated the potential nutritional impact of replacing staple grain foods with more healthful options.

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ASSOCIATION BETWEEN WEIGHT CONTROL BEHAVIORS AND DIET QUALITY AMONG BRAZILIAN ADOLESCENTS AND YOUNG ADULTS: HEALTH SURVEY OF SÃO PAULO WITH FOCUS ON NUTRITION, 2015

ABSTRACT: Little is known about how behaviors to control weight are associated with diet quality among youth from low- and middle-income countries. The aim of this study was to examine associations between efforts to control weight (ECW) and diet quality among Brazilian adolescents and young adults.

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CHANGES IN TOTAL PHYSICAL ACTIVITY, LEISURE AND COMMUTING IN THE LARGEST CITY IN LATIN AMERICA, 2003-2015

ABSTRACT: To analyze the prevalence of physical inactivity and the average time of practice of total physical activity and by domains (leisure and commuting), according to gender, age group and schooling, between 2003 and 2015, in residents of the urban area of the city of São Paulo. Data from Household Health Surveys in the Municipality of São Paulo (2003 n = 2,514; 2015 n = 4,043). The International Physical Activity Questionnaire was used to measure total, leisure, and commuting physical activity. Results were presented in < 10 minute/week periods, physical inactivity and minutes/week, according to evaluation period, sex, age and schooling.

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PREVALENCE AND FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH IRON DEFICIENCY AND ANEMIA AMONG RESIDENTS OF URBAN AREAS OF SÃO PAULO, BRAZIL

ABSTRACT: Anemia is a worldwide concern. This cross-sectional population-based study examined the prevalence of iron-deficiency anemia (IDA) among residents of São Paulo (n = 898; 12–93 years), considering sociodemographic factors, dietary iron inadequacy, and food contributors to iron intake. Blood cell count and iron biomarkers were quantified. Dietary iron intake was measured using two 24-h dietary recalls.

sugestion_article_gac_2

ASSOCIATION BETWEEN JOINT DISEASES AND COMMON MENTAL DISORDERS IN WOMEN AT AGES RELATED TO MENOPAUSE: DATA FROM THE SÃO PAULO CITY HEALTH SURVEY, SP, BRAZIL

ABSTRACT: To investigate the association between joint diseases (JD) and common mental disorders (CMD) in women at ages related to menopause. Cross-sectional, population-based study (São Paulo City Health Survey, SP, Brazil). The sample was composed of 1191 women, 40 years and older. Dependent variable (outcome): Presence of CMD, investigated by the Self Reporting Questionnaire-20 (SRQ-20).

sugestion_article_gac_2

VALIDITY OF SELF-REPORTED BODY MASS AND HEIGHT: RELATION WITH SEX, AGE, PHYSICAL ACTIVITY, AND CARDIOMETABOLIC RISK FACTORS

ABSTRACT: To evaluate the validity of self-reported body mass and height measurements in adolescents, adults and older adults according to sex, age, leisure-time physical activity level, nutritional status, and cardiometabolic risk factors. Methods: The study included 856 subjects, aged 12 years or older, who participated in the São Paulo Health Survey (ISA-2015) and who had their body mass and height measured and self-reported. Based on the Body Mass Index (BMI), a classification of nutritional status was made according to standardized criteria for each phase of life. The validation of self-reported data was examined by the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient, Bland-Altman and paired T-Test. Linear regression models were used to estimate the calibration coefficients, and sensitivity and specificity tests were performed.

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MISREPORTING OF DIETARY ENERGY INTAKE OBTAINED BY 24 H RECALLS IN OLDER ADULTS: A COMPARISON OF FIVE PREVIOUS METHODS USING DOUBLY LABELED WATER

ABSTRACT: A cross-sectional study with thirty-eight Brazilian community-dwelling older adults aged 60–84 years, who had their total energy expenditure measured by doubly labeled water (TEEDLW). Dietary data were collected by two 24 h recalls. Misreporting was compared with estimates obtained by the methods proposed by: Goldberg et al. [1, 2], Black [3], McCrory et al. [4], Huang et al [5], and Rennie et al [6]. Bland–Altman plots with 95% limits of agreement were constructed to assess the agreement between rEI and TEEDLW. Weighted kappa coefficients, sensitivity and specificity analyses, and area under the receiving operator characteristic curve (AUC) were used to test the performance of each method.

sugestion_article_gac_2

ASSOCIATIONS BETWEEN MARKERS OF GLUCOSE METABOLISM AND BONE MEASURES AMONG DIABETIC AND NON-DIABETIC ADULTS

ABSTRACT: Cross sectional study with 298 adults (mean age 57.5 years, SD = 14.8; 44.3% male, 16.9% diabetic) participants of the Health Survey–São Paulo (ISA-Capital) 2014–2015. Blood samples were collected to assess serum glucose, insulin and 25 hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations. Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) was performed to deter- mine total body fat; total lean mass; full body bone mineral density (BMD); lumbar spine BMD and bone mineral content (BMC); and femur BMD and BMC. Fat mass index (FMI), lean mass index (LMI), quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI), homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and of β-pancreatic cell function (HOMA-β) were calculated. Linear regression analysis were performed.

2020

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DIET QUALITY, EXCESS BODY WEIGHT AND CARDIOMETABOLIC RISK FACTORS IN ADOLESCENTS LIVING IN SÃO PAULO, BRAZIL AND IN THE USA: DIFFERENCES AND SIMILARITIES

ABSTRACT: To compare diet quality and its association with excess body weight (EBW: overweight/obesity), central adiposity (CA) and CVD risk factors (CVDR) among adolescents from Brazil and USA. Data from two cross-sectional surveys: Health Survey of São Paulo (ISA-Nutrition) and Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latino Youth (SOL-Youth). Dietary intake was assessed from 24-h recalls, and diet quality using the Alternate Healthy Eating Index-2010 (AHEI) developed in the USA and the Revised Brazilian Healthy Eating Index (BHEI-R). CVDR was defined as ≥3 of: obesity, elevated blood pressure, dyslipidaemia, high plasma glucose and insulin resistance. Adjusted OR for EBW, CA and CVDR by diet quality were tested using logistic regression.

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FATORES DEMOGRÁFICOS, SOCIOECONÔMICOS E DE ESTILO DE VIDA ASSOCIADOS AO CONSUMO DE BEBIDAS AÇUCARADAS: UM ESTUDO DE BASE POPULACIONAL

BACKGROUND: The intake of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) varies according to the characteristics of the population. To investigate the SSB intake and demographic, socioeconomic and lifestyle factors associated with its consumption in adolescents, adults, and older adults in São Paulo.

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IS THE LOCAL FOOD ENVIRONMENT ASSOCIATED WITH EXCESS BODY WEIGHT IN ADOLESCENTS IN SÃO PAULO

BACKGROUND: The obesogenic environment stimulates an inadequate diet by hampering healthy choices. This cross-sectional study evaluated the association between the local food environment and the prevalence of overweight and obesity in a representative sample population of adolescents living in the city of São Paulo, Brazil, using multilevel logistic regression models

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SYSTEMIC LOW-GRADE INFLAMMATION-ASSOCIATED LIFESTYLE, DIET, AND GENETIC FACTORS: A POPULATION-BASED CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY

BACKGROUND: Systemic low-grade inflammation (SLGI) is an intermediary common condition to the physiopathology of chronic noncommunicable diseases and targeting its determinants could lead to more efficient public health strategies. We aimed to investigate SLGI-independent associations with lifestyle, diet, and genetic factors in a population-based sample of adults using a systemic low-grade inflammation score (SIS).

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ASSOCIATION BETWEEN THE ADHERENCE TO THE MEDITERRANEAN DIETARY PATTERN AND COMMON MENTAL DISORDERS AMONG COMMUNITY-DWELLING ELDERS

BACKGROUND: Some questions regarding the benefits of the Mediterranean Dietary Pattern (MDP) are still unanswered, especially in non-Mediterranean areas. As such, this study intends to evaluate the association between the adherence to the MDP with the presence of Common Mental Disorders (CMD) in Brazilian older adults, adopting two different concepts of MDP.

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CORRELATIONS AMONG VITAMIN K INTAKE, BODY FAT, LIPID PROFILE AND GLUCOSE HOMEOSTASIS IN ADULTS AND THE ELDERLY. ARCHIVES OF ENDOCRINOLOGY METABOLISM

BACKGROUND: Recent research has investigated the possible inverse relationship between vitamin K intake and body fat. In addition, an increasing number of studies are supporting a key role for this vitamin in improving lipid profile and insulin sensitivity and reducing the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus, but little is known about what mechanisms would be involved. Thus, the objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between vitamin K intake (in the form of phylloquinone – PK), body fat, lipid profile and markers of glucose homeostasis in adults and the elderly.

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VALIDATION AND ADAPTATION OF THE EMPIRICAL DIETARY INFLAMMATORY PATTERN (EDIP) ACROSS NATIONS: A TEST CASE

BACKGROUND: The empirical dietary inflammatory pattern (EDIP) assesses the inflammatory potential of diet in the US population. The aim of this study was to assess the applicability of the EDIP to a Brazilian population.

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FADS1 AND ELOVL2 POLYMORPHISMS REVEAL ASSOCIATIONS FOR DIFFERENCES IN LIPID METABOLISM IN A CROSS-SECTIONAL POPULATION-BASED SURVEY OF BRAZILIAN MEN AND WOMEN

BACKGROUND: Cardiometabolic risk involves environmental and genetic factors. We aimed to investigate the relationship between plasma fatty acids and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), located in elongase and desaturases genes, and cardiometabolic parameters in a cross-sectional population-based survey. A sample of 226 adults who participated in the Health Survey of Sao Paulo, Brazil, was selected.

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HEALTHFUL GRAIN FOODS CONSUMPTION BY SÃO PAULO RESIDENTS: A 12-YEAR ANALYSIS AND FUTURE TRENDS

BACKGROUND: Understanding trends in grain consumption is essential to tackle the low consumption of healthful grain foods. This study aimed to evaluate trends and determinants of grain foods meeting the ≤10:1 carbohydrate:fibre ratio (≤10:1 ratio) in Brazil and to estimate this intake for the next years.

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THE DIETARY QUALITY IS ASSOCIATED WITH WATER INTAKES IN RESIDENTS OF SÃO PAULO

BACKGROUND: The scope of the study was to evaluate the probability of the adequacy of water intake among residents of São Paulo, and to investigate if the quality of diet differs according to the adequacy of water intake. Data were extracted from the Health Survey of São Paulo, a cross-sectional, population-based study. 

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ESTIMATING TOTAL DAILY ENERGY REQUIREMENTS IN COMMUNITY-DWELLING OLDER ADULTS: VALIDITY OF PREVIOUS PREDICTIVE EQUATIONS AND MODELING OF A NEW APPROACH

BACKGROUND: Accurate estimation of energy requirements is crucial for health maintenance and prevention of malnutrition in older adults. This study aimed to assess the accuracy of predictive equations for estimating energy requirements in older adults and to test the validity of new predictive equations for this age group.

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NUTRITIONAL BREAKFAST QUALITY AND CARDIOMETABOLIC RISK FACTORS: HEALTH SURVEY OF SÃO PAULO, A POPULATION-BASED STUDY

BACKGROUND: To evaluate the association between nutritional quality of breakfast and cardiometabolic risk factors. Cross-sectional study, 2015 Health Survey of São Paulo (2015 ISA-Capital) with Focus on Nutrition Study (2015 ISA-Nutrition).

2019

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Application of the≤10:1 carbohydrate to fiber ratio to identify healthy grain foods and its association with cardiometabolic risk factors

BACKGROUND: Optimal metrics to assess healthfulness of carbohydrate-rich products are not well established. We investigated how the content per 10 g of carbohydrate of at least 1 g of fiber (≤10:1-ratio) related to nutritional quality in grain foods as well as cardiometabolic risk factors in São Paulo, Brazil. The≤10:1-ratio identified grain foods with higher nutritional quality and higher intakes of these foods were associated with cardiometabolic risk factors related to atherogenic dyslipidemia and insulin resistance.

1

Eating behaviours and dietary intake associations with self-reported sleep duration of free-living Brazilian adults

BACKGROUND: Sleep duration in modern societies has been decreasing over the past decades and many environmental and behaviour factors contribute with. Evidence have shown that individuals with short sleep duration have worse eating behaviours and dietary intakes than those with adequate sleep. This study aimed to describe eating behaviours and dietary intakes of Brazilian adults and investigate their associations with self-reported sleep duration encompassing aspects of chrono-nutrition.

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Increased sugar-sweetened beverage consumption is associated with poorer dietary quality: A cross-sectional population-based study

BACKGROUND: The consumption of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages (SSB) has been associated with the development of several noncommunicable diseases and may represent a marker of an unhealthy lifestyle and poorer dietary quality. Therefore, we hypothesized that individuals with a higher SSB consumption would have poorer dietary quality. Considering the link between SSB and some burdensome pathologic conditions, understanding this relationship is important for planning interventions and public policies to reduce the incidence of noncommunicable diseases. The present study aimed to evaluate the association between SSB consumption and dietary quality in adolescents, adults, and older adults living in São Paulo, Brazil.

2018

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Access to Street Markets and Consumption of Fruits and Vegetables by Adolescents Living in São Paulo, Brazi

BACKGROUND: Fruits and vegetables (FV) are important components of a healthy diet because they are sources of fiber, vegetable proteins, and protective micronutrients. The intake of FV can be considered more decisive during adolescence, when there is a greater need for nutrients, because it is a period of growth, development, and the establishment of habits that tend to remain in adult life. Food environment and income act as determinants of diet, and consequently, of the consumption of fruits and vegetables. The objective of this study is to investigate the association between fruit and vegetable consumption, income, and street market density in adolescents living in São Paulo, Brazil.

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Determinants of inequalities in the quality of Brazilian diet: trends in 12-year population-based study (2003–2015

BACKGROUND: Diet quality is a modifiable risk factor that influences the development of chronic diseases such as obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and cardiovascular diseases. It contributes to inequalities in health and, at the same time, is influenced by socioeconomic inequalities, such as access to education and health services, which in turn are associated with living conditions, such as income, occupation and educational attainment. Recent studies have explored the influence of socioeconomic inequalities on the diet quality. However, there is lack of evidence regarding the level of inequalities in dietary quality and its main contributing factors from population-based follow-up studies. The primary objective of this study was to investigate the level and the determinants of inequalities in diet quality in a representative sample of adolescents, adults and older adults resident in São Paulo, Brazil.

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2015 Health Survey of São Paulo with Focus in Nutrition: Rationale, Design, and Procedure

BACKGROUND: This paper describes the design, sampling methods, and data collection procedures, with particular focus on dietary data, used for the 2015 Health Survey of São Paulo (2015 ISA-Capital) with Focus in Nutrition Study (2015 ISA-Nutrition). The ISA is a household cross-sectional, population-based survey that uses complex, stratified, multistage sampling to create a representative sample of residents from urban São Paulo, Brazil. The 2015 ISA-Nutrition aims to evaluate lifestyle-related modifiable factors in São Paulo’s residents, as well as their association with biochemical and genetic markers, and environmental aspects related to cardiometabolic risk factors. This paper concludes that 2015 ISA-Nutrition may provide valuable insights into the cardiometabolic risk factors in a big city in an upper middle-income country and contribute to the formulation of health and nutritional policies.

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Dairy consumption and inflammatory profile: A cross-sectional population-based study, São Paulo, Brazil

BACKGROUND: Dairy products are recognized as the best source of dietary calcium based on content and bioavailability]. This food group also provides high-quality protein due to its complete amino acid profile, which appears to exert a favorable influence on body com-position changes in weight loss and lean mass retention. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between dairy product consumption and plasma inflammatory biomarkers levels among a representative sample of Brazilian adults from São Paulo City.

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Excess body weight in the city of São Paulo: panorama from 2003 to 2015, associated factors and projection for the next years

BACKGROUND: Excess body weight (EBW: overweight and obesity) has high and rising prevalence in Brazil. Up-to-date information about the distribution and changes in the prevalence of EBW and their associated factors are essential to determine target groups and to identify priority actions. The aim of this study was to investigate the associated factors and to determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity in the adolescent and adult population of the city of São Paulo in the years of 2003, 2008, and 2015, as well as to estimate the prediction for the next years.

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Differences over 12 Years in Food Portion Size and Association with Excess Body Weight in the City of São Paulo, Brazil

BACKGROUND: In recent years, the portion size of foods (especially energy-dense foods) has been intensively investigated as a possible contributor to the rise in prevalence of excess body weight in diverse populations. Although changes in Brazilian dietary patterns have occurred over the last decades in parallel with the rise in the prevalence of excess body weight, as far as we know, there is no evidence about differences on food portion sizes over the time. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the association of food portion sizes with body weight status, and to monitor the differences over the years in a representative population from the city of São Paulo, Brazil, from 2003 to 2015.

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Validade da autorreferência de colesterol elevado na cidade de São Paulo, Brasil, e fatores associados à sensibilidade dessa informação

BACKGROUND: The study aimed to validate self-report of high cholesterol in São Paulo, Brazil, and verify factors associated with this information’s sensitivity. Data were used from the Health Survey of the City of São Paulo 2015, a cross-sectional population-based study with a probabilistic sample of the city’s residents. The validity of self-reported information on high cholesterol was measured according to sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and kappa index, considering total cholesterol and LDL-c and pharmacological treatment as the gold standard. The results suggest low sensitivity and low PPV of self-reported high cholesterol in residents of São Paulo.

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Sampling plan in health surveys, city of São Paulo, Brazil, 2015

BACKGROUND: It is important to know the sampling plans used in epidemiological surveys and the evaluation of the alternatives applied to improve the practice of household surveys. The planning of the 2015 survey was based on the interest to produce information on smaller areas of the city, which are more homogeneous in relation to the epidemiological profile. The objective of this study was to evaluate the sampling plan of the ISA-Capital 2015 regarding the precision of estimates and the conformation of the domains of study by the Health Coordinations of the city of São Paulo, Brazil.